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Mining is the process of adding transaction records to crypto's public ledger of past transactions. This ledger of past transactions is called the block chain as it is a chain of blocks.
When a block is discovered, the discoverer may award themselves a certain number of bitcoins, which is agreed-upon by everyone in the network.
Additionally, the miner is awarded the fees paid by users sending transactions. The fee is an incentive for the miner to include the transaction in their block. In the future, as the number of new crypto miners are allowed to create in each block dwindles, the fees will make up a much more important percentage of mining income.

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